Wednesday, October 13, 2010

Histology and Cytogenetics

N-myc amplification. N-myc is an oncogene, or a gene (DNA sequence) that turns on cell growth. Amplification means that more than one copy is found in the cell.

Hyperploidy. A normal cell has 46 chromosomes. Cancer cells often have extra chromosomes, and this is termed "hyperploidy".

VMA/HVA ratio. This is the ratio of catecholamine metabolites found in the urine.

NSE. Neuron-specific enolase, a serum marker. This is an enzyme specific to the sympathetic nervous cells from which the neuroblastoma derives.

Serum ferritin. An accurate estimate of the body's iron stores; a serum marker.

LDH. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a group of enzymes that have a similar biological activity; a serum marker.

Gd2. Presence of this serum marker (a sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipid) may play a role in faster tumour progression.

CD44 antigen. The presence of this antigen indicates a particular developmental stage of the neuroblastoma cells.

TRK-A protooncogene. Again, oncogenes turn on cell growth.

1p deletion. Deletion on chromosome 1.


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