N-myc amplification. N-myc is an oncogene, or a gene (DNA sequence) that turns on cell growth. Amplification means that more than one copy is found in the cell.
Hyperploidy. A normal cell has 46 chromosomes. Cancer cells often have extra chromosomes, and this is termed "hyperploidy".
VMA/HVA ratio. This is the ratio of catecholamine metabolites found in the urine.
NSE. Neuron-specific enolase, a serum marker. This is an enzyme specific to the sympathetic nervous cells from which the neuroblastoma derives.
Serum ferritin. An accurate estimate of the body's iron stores; a serum marker.
LDH. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a group of enzymes that have a similar biological activity; a serum marker.
Gd2. Presence of this serum marker (a sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipid) may play a role in faster tumour progression.
CD44 antigen. The presence of this antigen indicates a particular developmental stage of the neuroblastoma cells.
TRK-A protooncogene. Again, oncogenes turn on cell growth.
1p deletion. Deletion on chromosome 1.