Neuroblastoma is the most common cancer among infants, suggesting an etiologic role for prenatal factors. In this case-cohort study, neuroblastoma cases (n = 529) diagnosed between 1985 and 2001 were identified from the New York State Cancer Registry and were matched to the electronic birth records for 1983–2001 from New York State and New York City. Controls (n = 12,010) were selected from the same birth cohorts. Analysis was stratified by age at diagnosis, with one to six months (younger infants), seven to 18 months (older infants), and older than 18 months (older children) analyzed separately. Perinatal exposure data was obtained from the birth certificates. No risk factors were identified to be consistently associated with risk across all three age groups. Generally, more risk factors were identified as associated with neuroblastoma among younger infants relative to older ages, including high birth weight, heavier maternal gestational weight gain, maternal hypertension, older maternal age, ultrasound, and respiratory distress. Among older infants, low birth weight was associated with increased risk while heavier maternal gestational weight gain was protective. In the oldest age group, first born status, primary cesarean delivery, prolonged labor and premature rupture of the membranes were associated with increased risk.
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